This article discusses Léon Walras’s conception of pure science, which naturalizes market prices. We then show how Marx critically explains the naturalization of economic phenomena in general. Then – based on Jacques Lacan’s theory of the subject – we indicate how the discourse of positive science contributes to the formation of technoscientific knowledge and, specially, to the diffusion of the neoclassical theory. Moreover, the article shows that this understanding of knowledge contributes to deduct from the responsibilities of technobureaucrats for potentially disastrous consequences of the application of positive science to society.
JEL Classification: B13; B41; B59.
The purpose of this article is to analyze China’s trade and investment relations th Latin America, especially with Brazil and MERCOSUR in the context of the international economic crisis. In a scenario in which commodity prices appear to remain low, the region increases its dependence on China. Thus, the Chinese take advantage to advance on the economies of the region, increasing reprimarization of the economies of these countries.
JEL Classification: F02.
In this paper, we investigate how innovative environments as a local strategic policy with particular features of the new entrepreneurial evelopmental state associated to what we call a Schumpeterian-style of policy can transform regions of middle-income countries, like Brazil. In particular, we sought to answer the following research question: how the São José dos Campos Science and Technology Park (STP-SJC) has been used as a tool to promote regional development? To answer it, having a logical model of this policy in perspective, we focus on this environment’s main objectives and empirically we performed a case study applying process tracing methodology.
JEL Classification: R11.
The literature on New Developmentalism has been reframing the developmental state’s characteristics throughout the different historical conjunctures experienced within the international order. This paper argues that developmentalism has been reinventing itself as a branch of the comparative-historical method. To achieve this, the article assesses the evolution of developmentalism as a comparative-historical method which has been consolidated as a continuation of previous development models, such as List’s national system and Prebisch’s structuralism. Likewise, this paper will explore New Developmentalism and its explanatory power regarding recent industrial strategies in Latin America.
JEL Classification: P5.
Comparing List’s development problem to Dutch Disease, as generalized by Bresser-Pereira, one sees quite a few similarities. While the exchange rate was understandably of no concern to List, it is meanwhile one if not the most important determinant of trade flows. This generalized Dutch Disease approach is a valuable contribution to the debate on appropriate economic policies in Southern countries. It shows a way to counter maldevelopments. It certainly deserves further discussion because quite a few countries suffer from it. Bresser’s arguments fit very well into other unorthodox approaches that also tried to counter the inefficiency of really existing markets with workable proposals, which orthodoxy has quite successfully supressed. This paper also makes a proposal that might help for agro-exporting countries.
JEL Classification: F10; O10; B50.
This paper aims to present the recent debate about Sraffian Supermultiplier Model (SSM), that gained notoriety in the academic environment after the controversy between Peter Skott (2016) and Marc Lavoie (2016, 2017) on the specification of the investment function of the Neo-Kaleckian models of income growth and distribution. Lavoie used the SSM model as an attempt to rescue the Neo-Kaleckians models of the devastating criticism made by Peter Skott (2010) regarding the specification of the investment function. In this context, we will not only argue that this rescue operation was not successful, but we will also question the capacity of SSM models to serve as an “alternative closure” for heterodox models of income growth and distribution, due to three fundamental shortcomings of the SSM approach, which are: (i) the hypothesis that the normal degree of utilization of the productive capacity is an exogenous variable, (ii) that investment in capacity expansion is totally endogenous; and (iii) the applicability of this approach out of a closed economy framework. We will also argue that the Kaldorian models of growth, which are one of the theoretical foundations of the so-called Developmentalist Macroeconomics, and stock-flow consistent models (SFC) seem to be much more promising alternatives for the development of heterodox theories of growth and income distribution.
JEL Classification: E12; E37; P10.
It is not easy to classify J. M. Keynes’s ideological and political position. The purpose of this article is to identify his position. Nowadays, part of the left-wing identifies itself with his positions. On the other hand, there are some specialised economic literature positions that clearly show Keynes’s ideas are far from those of the Marxist/Communist left. However, it seems that Keynes’s relationship and his ideas with the culture of the communist left would be marked by deep adherences and rejections. Keynes apparently adopted dubious and pendular positions, but in fact, Keynes was an illuminist, an elitist intellectual, who had a utopia of social justice, material welfare and political liberalism. This is why, he is nowadays admired by the radical and reformist left.
JEL Classification: B31; A31; A13.
This article discusses the issue of effective financial management in agriculture. The article considers the indicators of budget spending efficiency that are used by countries with extensive experience in effective budgeting. Such indicators are recommended for adaptation in countries with transitional economy. When assessing the effectiveness of financial management of agriculture in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to take into account examples of effective audit in other countries. The article presents experience of other countries and demonstrates the inconsistency of existing policies in the agricultural sector of Kazakhstan.
JEL Classification: Q13.
Brazil is the first national in the world to approve a law to institute, step by step, a Citizen’s Basic Income. In 1991, I presented a Guaranteed Minimum Income proposal. More and more in the world, there is growing interest and experiences. Among them, in Kenia. The results of paying a Universal Basic Income to all adults with 18 years or more in rural villages are very positive. Maricá (RJ) has started to pay 33 dollars per month to one third of the population last August. By 2021, the Universal Basic Income (UBI) will be paid to all inhabitants.
JEL Classification: D31; D63; E25; E62; F22.