Considering the rise of the discussion about the rhetoric of economics at the beginning of the 1980’s, the paper aims to show: 1) the relation between the origin of this issue in the academic field and the ascension of the so labeled “neoliberalism” as a doctrine and a collection of capitalist practices perceived at the same time; and 2) the consequences produced by this idea, overseas born, when it meets a peripherical reality like the Brazilian one. In the first case, we are going to show the importance of Hayek’s reflections about the inadequateness of neoclassical discourse to the aim of ideologically legitimate the market society. In the second we are going to point out that, taking the consequences of the rhetoric project in Brazil, it can be seeing as an additional chapter of “the ideas out of its place” that comes marking the Brazilian history of the ideas.
JEL Classification: A11; A12; B41.
The objective of this paper is to analyze the main theoretical arguments for the analysis of the conduction of monetary policy on the fiscal side. Besides this, an analysis is made of the possible effects on the fiscal balance from the conduction of the monetary policy in the search for price stability after the Real Plan and due to an increase in the central bank independence (CBI) in the Brazilian case. The findings denote that the strategy for the conduction of the adopted monetary policy and the increase in the degree of CBI did not contribute to an improvement in the fiscal balance.
JEL Classification: E58; E63.
This article explores general concerns about government banking, social inclusion, and democracy through case study of the Brazilian federal government savings bank (Caixa Econômica Federal). Review of government savings banks in Brazilian history suggests that these institutions have been at the center of domestic political economy, expanding and contracting under a variety of political regimes and economic conditions. Since capitalization to meet central bank and Basel Accord guidelines in 2001, the Caixa has attempted to modernize, continue to serve as agent for government policies, and expand both popular credit and savings and investment banking activities.
JEL Classification: E5; G2.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the main characteristics of new Lula’s government support. The paper’s hypothesis concentrates in the idea of starting a different political approach, “a new populism”. The paper argues that Lula’s government to keep in power, beyond of going on with the neoliberal project – unfinished in the last years of FHC government -, needs to build up a solid and trustful political support, which is being done by implementing income transfer programs directed to poor people and the ones with less organization experience. This paper also calls the attention to Lula’s government nature, in order to clarify the difficulties which should be dealt and the tasks to be developed in building up a political party that defends workers emancipation and Brazilians exploited.
JEL Classification: I38.
This paper provides an assessment of the tax-reform effort launched by the newly elected Lula government in 2003. It analyzes how the envisaged reform had to be changed and scaled down, in the wake of strong political resistance, after a failed attempt to develop a consensual proposal, fully supported by state-governors. The main effective changes are then evaluated. Challenges ahead are discussed at the end.
JEL Classification: H20; H7; H77.
Since the 1970’s the loss of industrial output share of Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area relative to Brazil’s industrial output has been explained by a process of “reversal polarization”. This article aims to analyze the catching up effect of variables of productive efficiency, such as technological capacity and labor force skill. The main point is to analyze if the behavior of these variables favored or reduced desagglomeration of Sao Paulo city and the resulting agglomeration effect on Brazilian emerging metropolitan areas. Utilizing the Household Sample Survey (PNAD) of the Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute (IBGE) we will test if there has been technological catching up between São Paulo (defined as the frontier) and second-tier metropolis of southern Brazil (Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and Porto Alegre). A set of panel data tests the importance of the variables referred to on spatial distribution of Brazilian industry.
JEL Classification: O; O18.
The service sector involves a wide range of activities, each with different product characteristics, process and market organizations. Intending to take into account their specificities, without binding to particularities and exceptions, this paper, through a revision of classic and contemporary authors, proposes a group of contributive elements for a conceptual approach.
JEL Classification: L800.
The objective and originality of this paper lie in identifying Stiglitz’s main theoretical contributions to Financial Economics and in briefly portraying the contemporary economic thought out of which these contributions emerged as well as in suggesting their connections with the subsequent economic thought. Grounded on a detailed analysis of Stiglitz’s works on finance, his most important theoretical findings are singled out and gathered into four issues: (1) the conditions under which the Modigliani-Miller theorem is valid; (2) the inconsistency inherent to the efficient market hypothesis; (3) the microeconomic effects of asymmetrical information in financial markets; and (4) its real macroeconomic effects. In all of these topics, the focal point of Stiglitz’s theoretical research is the unrealistic underpinnings on which the Arrow-Debreu competitive equilibrium model relies. It is also emphasised that this same perspective he coherently followed to construct a fully-fledged theoretical framework would be preserved in his empirical investigations, notably about developing countries, on which he has concentrated effort since the beginnings of the nineties.
JEL Classification: G14; G11; G32.