This paper develops some general guidelines that should take part of a new view of development to Brazil, in opposition to the neoliberal project. This alternative, that is called ‘new developmentalism’, should include sustained economic growth with social equity.
JEL Classification: E24, 011, P41.
The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, we show how, and to what extent, Latin American and Caribbean countries applied the precepts of the second Washington consensus, i.e. a consensus which stresses the capital account liberalization. Secondly, we highlight the effects of this set of reforms on their economies. Thus, we show that countries having most scrupulously followed these recommendations did not experience better economic results. On the contrary, their situation as regards inequality and debt is getting worse than others.
JEL Classification: O11, O19, O54, E61, F42.
This paper discusses the Irish experience in the 90s, and details the main aspects of the impressive and rapid transition from a situation of excessive indebtedness, economic stagnation and high unemployment to sustainable growth. The presence of a national development strategy seems to be the crucial institutional tool that allowed this transition.
JEL Classification: 043.
In this paper we extend Kaldor’s Neo-Pasinetti theorem to the scope of budgetary interventions based on political orientations. First, we take into account a system of taxes and expenditures. Second, we introduce different reaction functions for public spending showing the political role of the State in Cambridge theory of distribution. It turns out that the validity of Kaldorian results depends on the political orientation adopted by government, which diminishes the range of application of the Neo-Pasinetti theorem.
JEL Classification: E12, E21, E61.
This article is devoted to analyze changes in economic policy to be adopted by Mexico if a national development project were implemented. Starting from an evaluation of the main economic and political outcomes of Vicente’s Fox administration, the author proposes an alternative development strategy which permits Mexico to overcome economic stagnation. That strategy would be based in recovering the internal market as the dynamical focus of the economy with the purpose of satisfying basic needs of people. To be successful this strategy should to confront the “critical knots” of the Neo-liberal model: to reverse the uneven distribution of income; abandoning the fixing of restrictive monetary, fiscal and exchange rate policies; and mobilizing economic surplus by means of a profound revision of debt service schemes. It concludes that to implement a national development project it is required a political and economic strategy to dismantle neoliberalism, which is an antinational structure of power.
JEL Classification: O11.
Based on the ISSP (1999) survey the aim of the present paper is to provide an empirical description about the perceptions Brazilians have towards their own social positioning in the social scale and towards the country’s income distribution. Throughout this description, the paper gives support for the hypothesis that Brazilians do not recognize the form of the country’s income distribution and its high degree of inequality. Also, we present a brief discussion on the causes and consequences of this knowledge gap.
JEL Classification: D31, D63, D83, I31.
The limits of workers’ share in profits. This article argues that workers´ share in profits are actually a share in extra surplus value obtained by means of more intensified labor. Cost reductions obtained by means of more intensified lean production methods cause wages to represent a smaller fraction of the product of a working day when measured at market value. The increased market rate of surplus value is the basis for workers´ shares in profits. However, as competition continuously levels out such advantages, the share in profits becomes dependent on a continuous strive to reducing costs and intensifying labor.
JEL Classification: J33.
This work expands the classical Nelson and Winter model of Schumpeterian competition by including two sectors and a North-South dynamics, with a view to analyzing how different institutions and technological regimes affect the processes of convergence and divergence in the international economy. The results suggest that convergence may emerge out of the efforts for imitation in the South when the technological regime is cumulative. But when the regime is science-based, imitation is not enough for a successful catching-up. In this case convergence requires the South to invest in innovation as well. The work also analyses the robustness of the model results using Montecarlo.
JEL Classification: O41, O33, F43.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between fiscal deficits and interest rate in Brazil. An adaptation of Taylor’s Rule is tested and the data confirmed this relationship. Furthermore, evidence from a loanable funds model shows that a lower deficit can bring interest rate down. However, policy coordination is a key feature in this process.
JEL Classification: E31, E52, E61.
This article compares the determinants of electoral success in two consecutive Brazilian legislative elections, 1998 and 2002. There is a clear difference between both periods that renders the comparison especially interesting. In 1998 the incumbent president was running for reelection whereas in 2002 it was an open seat contest. We hypothesize that in 1998 the proximity of the Federal Deputy with the president and the allocation of federal monies controlled by the Executive Branch played a more significant role in affecting reelection success than in 2002. Hence, if the President is himself running for reelection is an important intervening contextual variable in understanding reelection success of Federal Deputies.
JEL Classification: H00.